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خانه / ۱۳۹۶ / فروردین

بایگانی ماهانه: فروردین ۱۳۹۶

WHERE YOU MAY GET IT WRONG WHEN WRITING ENGLISH

A PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR STUDENTS, TEACHERS AND PROFESSIONALS

© ۲۰۱۶ Leon Barkho

CONTENTS

Quoting and Paraphrasing – Introduction
How to Quote
Practical Guide
Subject and Verb Agreement
The Possessive
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Punctuation
Consistency
Currencies
Pronouns
Sentences
Coherence
Content Words
Friendly Words

INTRODUCTION

As part of my English language teaching tasks at the school, I had to edit dissertations, scholarly papers, articles and reports and polish them from the language point of view. The corrections I made helped some of my colleagues at the university to get printed in some of the most prestigious scholarly journals and publications. But as I was editing and teaching, I found that many of the errors were recurrent in the scores of dissertations and hundreds of papers, articles and reports I was asked to have a look at. Then, I began collecting these errors and tabulating them. In the course of time, the corpus grew to thousands of examples, many of which I included in the handouts I gave to my students. Talking about errors in the class and how to identify and correct them is something students enjoy most. But one word of caution: teachers will have to present the errors to their students as anonymously as possible. As teachers, our job is not to embarrass our students. Our job is to encourage and motivate them

The Purpose
This book is specifically written to improve the skill of writing in English. It is the product of almost a decade of teaching, editing and researching at the university. There is no shortage of books written in English and targeting English language learning errors. But I regret to say that most of the stuff I have seen is rarely based on authentic material and samples gathered over a long period of time
This book is corpus-based and is meant primarily to help readers write English properly, without errors if possible. It is designed both as a textbook and a publication that can be used by the majority of people as a guide on how to improve their English writing skills

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Zapping the brain with electricity could improve memory

Zapping the brain with low levels of electricity may help improve the short-term memory of those suffering major neurological injuries, a new study found

The research found applying a low voltage current can help people perform better on tasks such as remembering new names or a shopping list, express.co.uk reported.

Scientists hope the technique could one day be used to bypass damaged areas of the brain and relay signals in people who have suffered a traumatic injury, stroke or epilepsy.

In the brain there are a huge number of messages being sent at the same time, with brainwaves working at different frequencies and in different regions keeping a steady ‘beat’.

The research team from Imperial College London found weak electrical current through the scalp helps align different parts of the brain, synchronizing their brain waves and enabling them to keep the same beat.

Neuroscientist Dr. Ines Ribeiro Violante, who led the research, said: “What we observed is that people performed better when the two waves had the same rhythm and at the same time.”

Senior author of the paper Professor David Sharp, said: “We are very excited about the potential of brain stimulation to treat patients.

“I work with patients who often have major problems with working memory after their head injuries, so it would be great to have a way to enhance our current treatments, which may not always work for them.

“Our next step is to try the approach out in our patients and we will see whether combining it with cognitive training can restore lost skills.”

The study, published in the journal eLife, used a technique called transcranial alternating current stimulation (TACS) to manipulate the brain’s regular rhythm.

They found that buzzing the brain with electricity could give a performance boost to the same memory processes used when trying to remember names at a party, phone numbers or even a short grocery list.

The researchers targeted the middle frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule parts of the brain, which are known to be involved in working memory.

Volunteers carried out memory tests which increased in difficulty while receiving electrical stimulation to those two parts of the brain wither at differently times, the same times or in a quick burst.

The results showed when the brain regions were stimulated in sync, reaction times on the memory tasks improved, especially on the harder tasks which required volunteers to hold two strings of numbers in their minds.

Violante said: “The classic behavior is to do slower on the harder cognitive task, but people performed faster with synchronized stimulation and as fast as on the simpler task.”

Previous studies have shown brain stimulation with electromagnetic waves or electrical current affect brain activity, but the field has remained controversial due to a lack of reproducibility.

However with an MRI scanner, the team, in collaboration with University Collage London, was able to show changes in activity occurring during stimulation, with the electrical current potentially modulating the flow of information.

Violante added: “We can use TACS to manipulate the activity of key brain networks and we can see what’s happening with MRI.

“The results show that when the stimulation was in sync, there was an increase in activity in those regions involved in the task. When it was out of sync the opposite effect was seen.”

However making the treatment available to the wider public may be difficult due to the individual nature of people’s brain.

The researchers say not only do the electrodes have to get the right frequency, but target it to the right part of the brain and get the beat in time.

Violante added: “We use a very cheap technique, and that’s one of the advantages we hope it will bring if it’s translatable to the clinic.

“The next step is to see if the brain stimulation works in patients with brain injury, in combination with brain imaging, where patients have lesions which impair long range communication in their brains.

“The hope is that it could eventually be used for these patients, or even those who have suffered a stroke or who have epilepsy.”

History of technology

The history of technology is the history of the invention of tools and techniques and is similar to other sides of the history of humanity. Technology can refer to methods ranging from as simple as language and stone tools to the complex genetic engineering and information technology that has emerged since the 1980s

New knowledge has enabled people to create new things, and conversely, many scientific endeavors are made possible by technologies which assist humans in travelling to places they could not previously reach, and by scientific instruments by which we study nature in more detail than our natural senses allow

Since much of technology is applied science, technical history is connected to the history of science. Since technology uses resources, technical history is tightly connected to economic history. From those resources, technology produces other resources, including technological artifacts used in everyday life

Technological change affects, and is affected by, a society’s cultural traditions. It is a force for economic growth and a means to develop and project economic, political and military power

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Sony Company Profile

Sony is a leading global media conglomerate based in Tokyo, Japan. The company provides an array of products in several categories including electronics, gaming, video, communications, and information technology. Sony has been working to expand in these markets through corporate restructuring and product development initiatives. This report looks at the company’s current activities, and discusses its strategy and financial standing

Sony is a consumer electronics company, which has its roots dating back to 1946, when the company was founded as Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering. The company manufactures a variety of offerings, such as batteries, cameras, computer monitors, DVD players, flat-screen TVs, home-use game consoles and software, image-based software, MiniDisc and Walkman stereo systems, and semiconductors

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Celebrating Nowruz

Nowruz is the name of the Iranian New Year also known as the Persian New Year, which is celebrated worldwide by the Iranians, along with some other ethno-linguistic groups, as the beginning of the New Year.
It has been celebrated for over 3,000 years in Western Asia, Central Asia, the Caucasus, the Black Sea Basin and the Balkans. It marks the first day of the first month (Farvardin) in the Iranian calendar.
Nowruz is the day of the vernal equinox, and marks the beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere. It usually occurs on 21 March or the previous or following day, depending on where it is observed. The moment the sun crosses the celestial equator and equalizes night and day is calculated exactly every year, and families gather together to observe the rituals

Etymology:
The term Nowruz is a Persian compound word, consisting of the words now and ruz. Now (Old Persian: nava), which means “new” and descends from Proto-Indo-European *néṷos, is cognate with English new

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Majid Samii

Professor Majid Samii was born in Tehran, Iran on 19 June 1937. After having completed his high school education in Iran, he moved to Germany, where he started his medical study at the University of Mainz

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Ferdowsi

Abu ʾl-Qasim Ferdowsi Tusi (c. 940–۱۰۲۰), or Ferdowsi (also transliterated as Firdawsi, Firdusi, Firdosi, Firdausi) was a Persian poet and the author of Shahnameh (“Book of Kings”), which is the world’s longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Iran and the Greater Iran. Having drafted the Shahnameh under patronage of the Samanid and the Ghaznavid courts of Iran, Ferdowsi is celebrated as the most influential figure in Persian literature and one of the greatest in the history of literature. He is widely regarded as the greatest poet in the Persian language. He was called “The Lord of the Word” and “The Savior of Persian Language.

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